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Author Topic:   Fossils - New Discoveries
Tanypteryx
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Posts: 4427
From: Oregon, USA
Joined: 08-27-2006
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(2)
Message 1 of 22 (855002)
06-14-2019 4:10 PM


I think we need a fossil thread for posting articles about new discoveries and important older ones. In recent years there have been a number of new Cambrian and Precambrian fossil deposits discovered and many new species described.
It would be great to see discussion, but hair-brained debate is pointless.
New 'king' of fossils discovered on Kangaroo Island
quote:
"We decided to name this new species of trilobite Redlichia rex (similar to Tyrannosaurus rex) because of its giant size, as well as its formidable legs with spines used for crushing and shredding food”which may have been other trilobites," says James Holmes, Ph.D. student with the University of Adelaide's School of Biological Sciences, who led the research.
The preservation of trilobite soft parts such as the antennae and legs is extremely rare. The new species was discovered at the Emu Bay Shale on Kangaroo Island, a world-renowned deposit famous for this type of preservation. The findings have been published in the Journal of Systematic Palaeontology by a team of scientists from the University of Adelaide, South Australian Museum and the University of New England.
Links and Information please.

What if Eleanor Roosevelt had wings? -- Monty Python
One important characteristic of a theory is that is has survived repeated attempts to falsify it. Contrary to your understanding, all available evidence confirms it. --Subbie
If evolution is shown to be false, it will be at the hands of things that are true, not made up. --percy
The reason that we have the scientific method is because common sense isn't reliable. -- Taq

Replies to this message:
 Message 2 by Adminnemooseus, posted 06-14-2019 10:43 PM Tanypteryx has not replied

  
Tanypteryx
Member
Posts: 4427
From: Oregon, USA
Joined: 08-27-2006
Member Rating: 5.2


(1)
Message 4 of 22 (855029)
06-15-2019 1:46 PM


Two New Fossil Fungi Discoveries
Two stories about fossil fungi that I ran across a while ago.
One billion year old fungi found are Earth's oldest
quote:
Scientists have unearthed fossilised fungi dating back up to one billion years, in a discovery that could reshape our understanding of how life on land evolved, research showed Wednesday. For decades, the earliest known fungi”organisms such as mushrooms, mould and yeast”was thought to have appeared on earth around half a billion years ago.
But recent fossil specimens unearthed in Canada and analysed using the latest dating technology appear to push back fungi's arrival to the earliest reaches of life on land.
Fossils may be earliest known multicellular life: study
quote:
Fossils accidentally discovered in South Africa are probably the oldest fungi ever found by a margin of 1.2 billion years, rewriting the evolutionary story of these organisms which are neither flora nor fauna, researchers said Monday. If verified as both fungal and multicellular, the 2.4 billion-year-old microscopic creatures”whose slender filaments are bundled together like brooms”could also be the earliest known specimens of the branch of life to which humans belong, they reported in the journal Nature Ecology & Evolution.
quote:
Up to now, the first fossil trace of eukaryotes”the "superkingdom" that includes plants, animals and fungi, but not bacteria”dates to only 1.9 billion years ago.
Earth itself is about 4.6 billion years old.
The ancient fungus-like life forms, found in fossilised gas bubbles 800 metres (2,600 feet) underground in South Africa's Northern Cape Province, are remarkable not just for their age but their origin, the researchers said.
quote:
It screamed 'life'
"My attention was drawn to a series of petrified gas bubbles, and when I increased the magnification of the microscope, I was startled," he recalled.
The bubbles were "filled with hundreds of exquisitely preserved filaments that just screamed 'life'," he wrote by email.
The plot thickened when Rasmussen realised that the surrounding lava was not 2.2 billion years old, as previously thought, but 2.4 billion years old.
That extra 200 million years was significant because it straddles a critical threshold in Earth's geological history called the Great Oxidation Event”a rapid and massive outpouring of oxygen into the atmosphere.

What if Eleanor Roosevelt had wings? -- Monty Python
One important characteristic of a theory is that is has survived repeated attempts to falsify it. Contrary to your understanding, all available evidence confirms it. --Subbie
If evolution is shown to be false, it will be at the hands of things that are true, not made up. --percy
The reason that we have the scientific method is because common sense isn't reliable. -- Taq

Replies to this message:
 Message 5 by AZPaul3, posted 06-15-2019 2:23 PM Tanypteryx has replied

  
Tanypteryx
Member
Posts: 4427
From: Oregon, USA
Joined: 08-27-2006
Member Rating: 5.2


Message 6 of 22 (855036)
06-15-2019 5:13 PM
Reply to: Message 5 by AZPaul3
06-15-2019 2:23 PM


Re: Two New Fossil Fungi Discoveries
Could be chiggers.
Edited by Adminnemooseus, : No reason given.

What if Eleanor Roosevelt had wings? -- Monty Python
One important characteristic of a theory is that is has survived repeated attempts to falsify it. Contrary to your understanding, all available evidence confirms it. --Subbie
If evolution is shown to be false, it will be at the hands of things that are true, not made up. --percy
The reason that we have the scientific method is because common sense isn't reliable. -- Taq

This message is a reply to:
 Message 5 by AZPaul3, posted 06-15-2019 2:23 PM AZPaul3 has seen this message but not replied

  
Tanypteryx
Member
Posts: 4427
From: Oregon, USA
Joined: 08-27-2006
Member Rating: 5.2


Message 7 of 22 (859329)
07-30-2019 8:15 PM


A voracious Cambrian predator, Cambroraster, is a new species from the Burgess Shale
quote:
Palaeontologists at the Royal Ontario Museum and University of Toronto have uncovered fossils of a large new predatory species in half-a-billion-year-old rocks from Kootenay National Park in the Canadian Rockies. This new species has rake-like claws and a pineapple-slice-shaped mouth at the front of an enormous head, and it sheds light on the diversity of the earliest relatives of insects, crabs, spiders, and their kin. The findings were announced July 31, 2019, in a study published in Proceedings of the Royal Society B.
quote:
Perhaps even more astonishing is the large number of specimens recovered. "The sheer abundance of this animal is extraordinary," added Dr. Caron, who is also an Assistant Professor in Ecology & Evolutionary Biology and Earth Sciences at the University of Toronto, and the leader of the field expeditions that unearthed the new fossils. "Over the past few summers we found hundreds of specimens, sometimes with dozens of individuals covering single rock slabs."

What if Eleanor Roosevelt had wings? -- Monty Python
One important characteristic of a theory is that is has survived repeated attempts to falsify it. Contrary to your understanding, all available evidence confirms it. --Subbie
If evolution is shown to be false, it will be at the hands of things that are true, not made up. --percy
The reason that we have the scientific method is because common sense isn't reliable. -- Taq

  
Tanypteryx
Member
Posts: 4427
From: Oregon, USA
Joined: 08-27-2006
Member Rating: 5.2


(2)
Message 8 of 22 (862488)
09-05-2019 1:55 PM


Ancient worm fossil rolls back origins of animal life
quote:
Half-a-billion-year-old creature challenges theory that animals burst onto the scene in an abrupt event known as the Cambrian explosion.
quote:
More than half a billion years ago, a strange, worm-like creature died as it crawled across the muddy sea floor. Both the organism and the trail it left lay undisturbed for so long that they fossilized. Now, they are helping to revise our understanding of when and how animals evolved.
The fossil, which formed some time between 551 million and 539 million years ago, in the Ediacaran period, joins a growing body of evidence that challenges the idea that animal life on Earth burst onto the scene in an event known as the Cambrian explosion, which began about 539 million years ago.
quote:
What’s extraordinary about this paper is it’s three home runs in the same five-page manuscript, says Simon Darroch, a palaeontologist at Vanderbilt University in Nashville, Tennessee. First, it’s exceptionally rare to find a dead animal preserved at the end of a trail it made when alive, he says. Second, the fossil dates to a crucial moment in the evolution of animal life.
And third: It’s such a bizarre-looking organism, says Darroch. The creature, which has been named Yilingia spiciformis and was up to 27 centimetres long, seems to be a biologically complex animal with a distinct front and rear end. We don’t really have many of those from the Ediacaran, he says.

What if Eleanor Roosevelt had wings? -- Monty Python
One important characteristic of a theory is that is has survived repeated attempts to falsify it. Contrary to your understanding, all available evidence confirms it. --Subbie
If evolution is shown to be false, it will be at the hands of things that are true, not made up. --percy
The reason that we have the scientific method is because common sense isn't reliable. -- Taq

  
Tanypteryx
Member
Posts: 4427
From: Oregon, USA
Joined: 08-27-2006
Member Rating: 5.2


(1)
Message 9 of 22 (862674)
09-10-2019 12:34 AM


New flying reptile species was one of largest ever flying animals
New flying reptile species was one of largest ever flying animals
quote:
A newly identified species of pterosaur is among the largest ever flying animals, according to a new study from Queen Mary University of London.
Cryodrakon boreas, from the Azhdarchid group of pterosaurs (often incorrectly called 'pterodactyls'), was a flying reptile with a wingspan of up to 10 metres which lived during the Cretaceous period around 77 million years ago.
quote:
Its remains were discovered 30 years ago in Alberta, Canada, but palaeontologists had assumed they belonged to an already known species of pterosaur discovered in Texas, USA, named Quetzalcoatlus.
The study, published in the Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, reveals it is actually a new species and the first pterosaur to be discovered in Canada.

What if Eleanor Roosevelt had wings? -- Monty Python
One important characteristic of a theory is that is has survived repeated attempts to falsify it. Contrary to your understanding, all available evidence confirms it. --Subbie
If evolution is shown to be false, it will be at the hands of things that are true, not made up. --percy
The reason that we have the scientific method is because common sense isn't reliable. -- Taq

  
Tanypteryx
Member
Posts: 4427
From: Oregon, USA
Joined: 08-27-2006
Member Rating: 5.2


(2)
Message 10 of 22 (866473)
11-11-2019 10:48 PM


Physical evidence of insect pollination 99 million years ago
New fossil pushes back physical evidence of insect pollination to 99 million years ago
quote:
The revelation is based upon a tumbling flower beetle with pollen on its legs discovered preserved in amber deep inside a mine in northern Myanmar. The fossil comes from the same amber deposit as the first ammonite discovered in amber, which was reported by the same research group earlier this year.
quote:
According to Dilcher, who provided a morphological review of the 62 grains of pollen in the amber, the shape and structure of the pollen shows it evolved to spread through contact with insects. These features include the pollen's size, "ornamentation" and clumping ability.
quote:
"It's exceedingly rare to find a specimen where both the insect and the pollen are preserved in a single fossil," said Dilcher. "Aside from the significance as earliest known direct evidence of insect pollination of flowering plants, this specimen perfectly illustrates the cooperative evolution of plants and animals during this time period, during which a true exposition of flowering plants occurred."

What if Eleanor Roosevelt had wings? -- Monty Python
One important characteristic of a theory is that is has survived repeated attempts to falsify it. Contrary to your understanding, all available evidence confirms it. --Subbie
If evolution is shown to be false, it will be at the hands of things that are true, not made up. --percy
The reason that we have the scientific method is because common sense isn't reliable. -- Taq

Replies to this message:
 Message 11 by jar, posted 11-12-2019 7:29 AM Tanypteryx has not replied

  
Tanypteryx
Member
Posts: 4427
From: Oregon, USA
Joined: 08-27-2006
Member Rating: 5.2


(1)
Message 19 of 22 (887812)
08-22-2021 3:58 PM


Unexpected Anatomical Complexity in Early Comb Jellies
Rare Cambrian fossils from Utah reveal unexpected anatomical complexity in early comb jellies
quote:
Ctenophores, also known as comb jellies, are a group of over 200 living species of invertebrate animals with a transparent gelatinous body superficially resembling that of a jellyfish. There is much interest in ctenophore evolution in recent years as their controversial phylogenetic position in the animal tree of life has prompted conflicting hypotheses. While some studies suggest they might represent the earliest branching animals, others suggest a more traditional position as close relatives of jellyfish.
quote:
These hypotheses carry different and important implications for understanding the origin of animals themselves because, depending on the position of comb jellies in the tree of life, it's possible that muscles and the nervous system might have had multiple origins, a rather big deal as these are some of the most distinguishing features of animals today.
quote:
Despite their importance for understanding animal evolution, most information about ctenophores comes from living species alone as fossil comb jellies are extremely rare due to their gelatinous bodies. However, some fossil ctenophores have been discovered in early and middle Cambrian sites (about 520-500 million years ago) with exceptional preservation. These fossilized specimens, found around the world in sites including Burgess Shale in Canada and Chengjiang in South China, show that Cambrian ctenophores are a bit different from living representatives. The fossils include features such as a skeleton that supported the ctenes, or comb rows, as well as up to 24 comb rows—many more than the eight comb rows possessed by living species.
quote:
Ultimately, the two new species from Utah illuminate the evolution of the nervous system, sensory structures, and diversity of Cambrian ctenophores. The researchers conclude that Cambrian ctenophores had more complex nervous systems compared to those observed today. Living species of comb jellies have a diffuse nervous system similar to the structure of chicken wire, but very thin and transparent. Cambrian ctenophores' nervous systems were condensed with specific nerve tracks that basically ran along the length of the body and then as a ring around the mouth. This complex system is only seen in one living species, the Euplokamis, which is regarded as potentially being an early branching ctenophore living today. However, while Euplokamis has this elongated nerve structure that runs the length of the body, it does not have the ring around the mouth, so it too is simpler compared to Cambrian ctenophores.
We keep learning new things!

What if Eleanor Roosevelt had wings? -- Monty Python

One important characteristic of a theory is that is has survived repeated attempts to falsify it. Contrary to your understanding, all available evidence confirms it. --Subbie

If evolution is shown to be false, it will be at the hands of things that are true, not made up. --percy

The reason that we have the scientific method is because common sense isn't reliable. -- Taq


  
Tanypteryx
Member
Posts: 4427
From: Oregon, USA
Joined: 08-27-2006
Member Rating: 5.2


(1)
Message 20 of 22 (888328)
09-12-2021 2:31 PM


A New Large Predator Fossil from the Burgess Shale
“Absolutely Mind-Boggling” Massive New Animal Species Discovered in 500 Million-Year-Old Burgess Shale
quote:
Paleontologists at the Royal Ontario Museum (ROM) have uncovered the remains of a huge new fossil species belonging to an extinct animal group in half-a-billion-year-old Cambrian rocks from Kootenay National Park in the Canadian Rockies. The findings were announced on September 8, 2021, in a study published in Royal Society Open Science.
quote:
Named Titanokorys gainesi, this new species is remarkable for its size. With an estimated total length of half a meter, Titanokorys was a giant compared to most animals that lived in the seas at that time, most of which barely reached the size of a pinky finger.
“The sheer size of this animal is absolutely mind-boggling, this is one of the biggest animals from the Cambrian period ever found,” says Jean-Bernard Caron, ROM’s Richard M. Ivey Curator of Invertebrate Palaeontology.
quote:
Evolutionarily speaking, Titanokorys belongs to a group of primitive arthropods called radiodonts. The most iconic representative of this group is the streamlined predator Anomalocaris, which may itself have approached a metre in length. Like all radiodonts, Titanokorys had multifaceted eyes, a pineapple slice-shaped, tooth-lined mouth, a pair of spiny claws below its head to capture prey and a body with a series of flaps for swimming. Within this group, some species also possessed large, conspicuous head carapaces, with Titanokorys being one of the largest ever known.
The Burgess Shales continue to be a rich source of new fossil organisms.

What if Eleanor Roosevelt had wings? -- Monty Python

One important characteristic of a theory is that is has survived repeated attempts to falsify it. Contrary to your understanding, all available evidence confirms it. --Subbie

If evolution is shown to be false, it will be at the hands of things that are true, not made up. --percy

The reason that we have the scientific method is because common sense isn't reliable. -- Taq


Replies to this message:
 Message 21 by AZPaul3, posted 09-13-2021 9:17 PM Tanypteryx has not replied

  
Tanypteryx
Member
Posts: 4427
From: Oregon, USA
Joined: 08-27-2006
Member Rating: 5.2


(1)
Message 22 of 22 (895454)
06-28-2022 12:33 PM


Clues About the Origins of Complex Life
Incredible Virus Discovery Offers Clues About the Origins of Complex Life
quote
The first discovery of viruses infecting a group of microbes that may include the ancestors of all complex life has been found, scientists at The University of Texas at Austin (UT Austin) report in Nature Microbiology. The incredible discovery offers tantalizing clues about the origins of complex life and suggests new directions for investigating the hypothesis that viruses were essential to the evolution of humans and other complex life forms.
There is a well-supported hypothesis that all complex life forms such as humans, starfish, and trees — which feature cells with a nucleus and are called eukaryotes — originated when archaea and bacteria merged to form a hybrid organism. Recent research suggests the first eukaryotes are direct descendants of so-called Asgard archaea. The latest research, by Ian Rambo (a former doctoral student at UT Austin) and other members of Brett Baker’s lab, sheds light on how viruses, too, may have played a role in this billions-year-old history.
quote
“This study is opening a door to better resolving the origin of eukaryotes and understanding the role of viruses in the ecology and evolution of Asgard archaea,” Rambo said. “There is a hypothesis that viruses may have contributed to the emergence of complex cellular life.”
Rambo is referring to a hotly debated hypothesis called viral eukaryogenesis. It suggests that, in addition to bacteria and archaea, viruses might have contributed some genetic component to the development of eukaryotes. While this latest discovery does not settle that debate, it does offer some interesting clues.
The newly discovered viruses that infect currently living Asgard archaea do have some features similar to viruses that infect eukaryotes, including the ability to copy their own DNA and hijack protein modification systems of their hosts. The fact that these recovered Asgard viruses display characteristics of both viruses that infect eukaryotes and prokaryotes, which have cells without a nucleus, makes them unique since they are not exactly like those that infect other archaea or complex life forms.
“The most exciting thing is they are completely new types of viruses that are different from those that we’ve seen before in archaea and eukaryotes, infecting our microbial relatives,” said Baker, associate professor of marine science and integrative biology and corresponding author of the study.
Reference: “Genomes of six viruses that infect Asgard archaea from deep-sea sediments” 27 June 2022, Nature Microbiology.
DOI: 10.1038/s41564-022-01150-8

Stop Tzar Vladimir the Condemned!

What if Eleanor Roosevelt had wings? -- Monty Python

One important characteristic of a theory is that is has survived repeated attempts to falsify it. Contrary to your understanding, all available evidence confirms it. --Subbie

If evolution is shown to be false, it will be at the hands of things that are true, not made up. --percy

The reason that we have the scientific method is because common sense isn't reliable. -- Taq


  
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